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Herbal Supplements and the Brain: Understanding Their Health by S. J. Enna, Stata Norton

By S. J. Enna, Stata Norton

At the present time, many makers of plant-based "neuroceuticals" declare their items can supply robust merits in mind functionality. despite the fact that, the USA executive doesn't require those brands to illustrate their products’ effectiveness, leaving it tricky for shoppers and healthiness execs to make judgements concerning the advantages and dangers. In natural vitamins and the mind: realizing their healthiness advantages and dangers, top researchers offer this significant info in transparent language any clever reader can comprehend and use. they start by way of introducing the elemental rules of pharmacology, explaining how medicinal drugs and typical items can have an effect on the body’s organs and organ structures. utilizing examples, they convey tips on how to be certain no matter if an ingested substance can input the bloodstream and achieve its aim at a focus adequate to have an impact. additionally they clarify how typical items may well impression blood degrees of alternative elements, and talk about no matter if such interactions may well slash the effectiveness of prescription medicinal drugs or adjust basic physique chemistry. all through, the authors emphasize components concerning in particular to neuroceuticals and the mind. person chapters are dedicated to dietary supplementations which promise to augment reminiscence, relieve soreness, effectively advertise sleep, and reduction within the remedy of melancholy or nervousness. in particular, readers will locate research-based insurance of Ginkgo biloba; St. John’s Wort; Valerian; Lemon Balm; Kava; Lavender; Kudzu, Daffodil, ardour Flower, and Camellia Tea and different caffeinated drinks.

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Extra info for Herbal Supplements and the Brain: Understanding Their Health Benefits and Hazards (FT Press Science)

Example text

However, it cannot be assumed that all herbal product manufacturers routinely undergo such inspection given the number of companies, the fact that many are located abroad, and the shortage of FDA personnel. The absence of federal requirements regarding safety and efficacy, and the minimal manufacturing oversight, leaves the consumer responsible for assessing the potential risks and benefits of these products. Besides a paucity of objective research data, this determination is complicated by the fact that neither the potential user nor the manufacturer can always be sure of the number and type of biologically active constituents in these extracts.

The characterization of pharmacokinetics is critical for evaluating whether a particular chemical has therapeutic potential. For example, if studies indicate that the test agent is not absorbed into the blood following ingestion, it is unlikely to be a drug candidate, at least with this route of administration. Likewise, if it is found that the test substance, although absorbed, is rapidly metabolized and cleared from the systemic circulation, it is a poor drug candidate as it will be difficult to achieve and maintain the levels at the target site necessary for the intended response.

In this case the two substances will compete for the limited number of transporter proteins, resulting in a decline in the absorption of one or the other, or both. Similarly, a drug that is metabolized by a particular cytochrome P450 enzyme may, if present in sufficient concentrations, slow the metabolism of other agents, both drugs and endogeneous substances. Moreover, some drugs are known to stimulate the production of cytochrome P450 enzymes, increasing the rate of their own metabolism and the breakdown of any other substrate for this enzyme.

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