By René Chartrand
Following the invention of the United States through Columbus in 1492, eu colonists introduced their procedure of fortification to the hot global in an try and be certain their safeguard and consolidate their conquests. French and British explorers got here later to North the USA, and hence the institution in their colossal settlements simply acquired below means through the seventeenth century. The population of latest France outfitted tricky fortifications to guard their cities and towns. This e-book presents an in depth exam of the defenses of 4 of them: Québec, Montréal and Louisbourg in Canada, and New Orleans in Louisiana.
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Extra resources for French Fortresses in North America 1535-1763: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg and New Orleans (Fortress, Volume 27)
Parks Canada) OPPOSITE A plan of Louisbourg in 1741. Most of the construction work had been completed by that date except at the Pièce de la Grave (lower left). (Archives Nationales, DFC) 49 Louisbourg 1758 The main features of Louisbourg during its second siege in 1758 were broadly similar to those in 1745 (see page 46). The walls and buildings were much the same except for improvements in the Dauphin Demi-bastion, which had been rebuilt with a cavalier so as to cover the land side with artillery fire.
In the following decades, its military importance decreased considerably. Nevertheless, a small detachment seems to have been posted at the fort right up to the end of the French Regime. The fortified windmill/watch tower was restored in 1700 and appears to have been in use until the 1780s. The fort itself was abandoned after 1760 but on May 25, 1776, it was occupied by American troops under the command of General Benedict Arnold. A small force of Canadians and Indians defeated the Americans further west at Cedars and, in their retreat, they set fire to whatever could be burned in the fort.
Bertrand, Histoire de Montréal, 1933) 33 Montréal 1760 Chief Engineer Chaussegros de Léry chose to follow the previous outlines of the city, which formed a very long and narrow rectangle. Under such circumstances, a Vauban-style fortress design was impossible but de Léry may have been influenced by some of the town fortifications erected in the 16th and 17th centuries in his native Provence. At Montréal the ramparts took the form of long and narrow bastions with a modest ditch was dug on three sides.