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2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: by Neal H. Atebara, MD

By Neal H. Atebara, MD

Discusses present functions of optical phenomena, together with the optical foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. offers optics of the human eye; simple strategies of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and call lenses. Discusses imaginative and prescient rehabilitation from the epidemiology of imaginative and prescient impairment, type of visible functionality deficits, sufferer review and coffee imaginative and prescient administration. final significant revision 2009 2010.

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Additional info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course)

Sample text

39 Point focus A Paint spread fu nction B Figure 2-14 A, Textbooks ofte n illu strate imag es produced by lense s as stigmat ic. S, In most cases, however, th e images are not stigmatic. The paint spread function reveals how faithfully an imag in g syste m reproduces eac h object poi nt. (Illustration developed by Kevin M. Miller. MD, and rendered by C. ) 10- 100 ~m across. This is better than a typical pinhole, but th e shape of the spot is very irregula r. The term blur circle is especially misleading when applied to lenses and mirrors.

The active medium is an atomic or molecular environment that supports sti mulated emission. The active medium allows a large number of atoms to be energized above the ground state so that stimulated emission can occur. ). Lasers are usually named for the active medium. The medium can be a gas (argon, krypton, carbon dioxide, argon-fluoride excimer, or helium with neon), a liquid (dye), a solid (an active element supported by a crystal, such as neodymium supported by yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Nd:YAGj and erbium supported by yttrium-lanthanum-fluo ride [Er :YLF]), or a semiconductor (diode).

The Nd:YAG Laser In Ophthalmology: Principles and Clinical Applications of PhotodisruptlOn. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1985. ) stimulation by a photon of light at th e same freque ncy (stimulated em ission; Fig l-lSC). Spontaneous emission occurs randoml y in time, whe reas stimulated emission is in phase with the stim ulating wave. Therefore, stimulated em ission is coherent. After absorption, the majority of energy release is through spontaneous emission occurring incoherently in CHAPTER 1: Before A Stimulated absorption hv 0 Spontaneous emission o Eo hv E, Eo 8 23 After - - - - E, ---<00-- Physical Optics.

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